Though both the Church and State are divinely created, their purpose and the means by which they carry out their purpose are completely different. The Christian is a citizen of two kingdoms. He is a citizen of the spiritual kingdom; a member of God’s family fed by the means of grace. He is also a citizen of a political kingdom; a subject to the law of the land. The Christian will give to the ruler what is the ruler’s and to God what is God’s, but he will not seek to mingle the powers of these two kingdoms. Sometimes the powers do become mingled and legal issues arise. Gawrisch looks at a handful of these cases. There will always be various applications to the principle of the separation of the church and the state.